Channel Tunnel Underwater View: Channel Tunnel (Chunnel) is the longest underwater tunnel. It is the only stable path that links France with England.
You will find here the complete history of the channel tunnel in detail with all its pros and cons.
- Channel Tunnel
- History of Channel Tunnel
- Work Progress
- Parts and their Directions
- Interesting facts about Channel Tunnel
- Pros Of Channel Tunnel
- Cons of Channel Tunnel
1. Channel Tunnel:
The Channel Tunnel is also named Eurotunnel. Eurotunnel is the former name of the company which won the bid for its maintenance. It is about a 50-kilometer-long rail tunnel. It is used for both, transportation and import-export purposes.
2. History of Channel Tunnel:
In the beginning, it was suggested to Napoleon Bonaparte in 1802 but the idea was ignored. Because the technology which was required to carry out this idea was not developed yet.
In 1986, Britain and France inked an agreement to authorize the construction of a tunnel between Folkestone in England and Calais in France.
3. Work Progress:
- The idea was first presented to Napoleon Bonaparte in 1802.
- At that time, the required technology to carry out this idea was not developed.
- Later in 1986, Britain and France inked an agreement of the construction of this design.
- For the next four years, about 13,000 workers dug a 95 miles long tunnel that was 45 meters below the sea bed.
- The final hole was dug in December of 1990.
- Flags were exchanged on both sides and the celebration started.
- Complete construction of the tunnel took four more years.
- It was eventually operated for Public services and passenger services in 1994.
- The inauguration was done by Britain’s Queen Elizabeth II and France’s President Francois Mitterrand.
- Eurotunnel(a company) won the bid and got the 55 years concession to operate the Chunnel.
4. Parts and their Directions:
It consists of three tunnels:
- One is directed from France to England.
- One is directed from England to France.
- The track in between these two tracks is for maintenance purposes.
5. Interesting facts about Channel Tunnel:
- First Eurostar link: the first Eurostar train link was established between Paris and London. Later it extended to Brussels, Avignon, and Amsterdam.
- Under Sea Portion: Its undersea portion is 38 kilometers long.
- Facilities: It is very spacious, it allows passengers to even travel by sitting in their own cars and parking their cars on the train.
- Safety: It has Fire hydrants across every passage. It is equipped with smoke detectors, fire protected doors and to some extent, it is bomb proof too.
- Contract time period: The contract time period is 99 years.
- No Govt. subsidies: There are absolutely no governmental subsidies. This is a 100% financed project.
- Start of operations: In 1993, construction was finally completed and in 1994 the operations started.
- Longest Tunnel: It is the longest underwater tunnel. It is about 51 kilometers long.
- Longest undersea tunnel: It is the World’s Longest Undersea tunnel which is effectively operating.
- Only Stable Link: It is the only stable link that connects France with England.
- 100% Funded Project: There are no Government subsidies. This project is a hundred percent privately funded project.
- Third largest Rail tunnel: It is World’s third-largest rail tunnel. The first is in Japan and SEcond is in Switzerland.
- Machinery: The construction team used eleven Giant Tunnel boring machines that work on the principle of Laser guidance.
- Capital Value: Its capital value was estimated at 11.8 billion US Dollars (valued at the dollar value of 1994).
6. Pros Of Channel Tunnel:
- It is the only stable connection between France and England.
- It provided a path for easy travel.
- It also gave the transportation path which made the export and import easy.
- It gave many financial benefits.
- It is also attractive to tourists.
- It provides fast travel at low environmental footprints.
- It does not affect the environment very much.
7. Cons of Channel tunnel:
- It is very hard to maintain this channel tunnel.
- It is always at risk of natural disasters.
- It affects life in water to some extent.
- In case of any conflict between two countries, it will be affected badly.
- It is facing issues with speed when coming out of the tunnel because of increasing air pressure.
Unhesitatingly it can be concluded that the channel tunnel is a masterpiece of engineering having multifarious aspects. As it connects different countries, it is highly beneficial for transportation and people’s connection.